The 1st round 2015 Kyiv city tasks / Завдання І туру ІІІ (міського) етапу Всеукраїнської учнівської 2015

ДЕПАРТАМЕНТ ОСВІТИ І НАУКИ, МОЛОДІ ТА СПОРТУ

ВИКОНАВЧОГО ОРГАНУ КИЇВСЬКОЇ МІСЬКОЇ РАДИ

(КИЇВСЬКОЇ МІСЬКОЇ ДЕРЖАВНОЇ АДМІНІСТРАЦІЇ)

КИЇВСЬКИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ ІМЕНІ БОРИСА ГРІНЧЕНКА

ІНСТИТУТ ПІСЛЯДИПЛОМНОЇ ПЕДГОГІЧНОЇ ОСВІТИ

Завдання І туру ІІІ етапу Всеукраїнської учнівської

олімпіади з англійської мови

9 клас

Writing Test for 9h Form Students

You should use your own ideas, knowledge and experience and support your arguments with relevant evidence.

Write at least 250 words.

Reading Comprehension Test for 9th Form Students (34 tasks)

Directions: In this Test you will read four texts. Each text is followed by 5 – 7 tasks. You should do the tasks following a text on the basis of what is stated or implied in that text.

Text 1

Questions 1 through 10 (on your answer sheet put ‘T’ if the statement is true, ‘F’ if it is false).

Action Sports Camps

Action Sports Camps provide activity holidays for children aged over five and adults. We offer training in over twenty sports at ten different centres throughout the UK. All the centres are open from April until October, and some open during the winter for weekend courses. The sports offered differ from one centre to another, so if you want to do something in particular, you should check our colour brochure.

The camps are not just limited to outdoor sports - we cover a wide range of indoor activities as well. So if the rain comes, the camps continue, although you may have to take off your football boots and pick up a squash racket instead. With the experience we've gained over the years, we put together the right mix of sport and activities providing sport for all, not just for those who are brilliant at athletics. It is unnecessary to bring any equipment because it is all provided.

We work in small groups, children working with others of their own age, but we do all come together for social activities and meals. So, different members of a family can make their own individual choices, but they get a chance to exchange their experiences later on.

Our centres offer first-class accommodation, food and facilities - and the staff are first-class too. Qualified teachers or professionals receive training from us, and many work with us year after year. We always employ qualified staff for activities such as swimming, trampolining and gymnastics, but some of the assistants organising the children's games are students, many of whom came to the camp themselves when they were younger.

At most of our centres, accommodation is in a hostel or tents. It is not possible for us to arrange other accommodation, but we can send you a list of what is available in the area. Most of the places are recommended to us, but not all, so we are not responsible for the quality of the accommodation on this list. Luxury accommodation is not available near our camps.

To book a place at a sports camp, complete the form and send it with a cheque for the deposit to the address below. The rest of the fee can be paid at any time, but we must receive it at least one month before your camp. Please note, to keep costs down, you are charged 2.5% extra by us if you pay with your credit card. You will receive a letter of confirmation within ten days of sending your form. Cancellations made up to a month before the camp are refunded in full apart from a 5% administration fee. Fifty per cent of the fee is refunded if a cancellation is made up to two weeks before the date of the camp. After that, no refunds can be given.

1. Some centres are open all winter.

2. The activities available depend on the weather.

3. Action Sports Camps courses are unsuitable for people who are excellent at sport.

4. You need to have your own sports equipment.

5. Children and adults spend some time together each day.

6. Some of the staff are unqualified.

7. Action Sports Camps only recommend accommodation of a high quality.

8. You have to pay the total fee one month after you book.

9. Action Sports Camps charge you more if you pay with your credit card.

10. If you cancel three weeks before your camp, you will get half your money back.

Text 2

Read a newspaper article about Venice. Choose a sentence from the list A-H which best summarises each part (11-17) of the article. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

Glossary: dump - waste disposal site

Winter in Venice

11______February in Venice is carnival season, where things are far from what they seem, and it is impossible to distinguish between the performers and the spectators. Revellers flit through the alleys, and ghostly masks hang from the ceilings and walls of tiny shops. It is easy to get caught up in the crowds of people who have flocked to Venice for the carnival, to munch on fritelle, small doughnuts made only during carnival season, and to forget that there is more to Venice than just entertainment.

12______Venice is a working, modern city, not a museum and certainly not a theme park. Rubbish collectors moor their dust carts at jetties every morning as people emerge from their houses to buy groceries from floating shops. They go to work by boat and walk along the waterfront eating ice-cream on Sundays.

13______One place to find the real city is in the black mud of the Rio di San Luca, a canal which was drained over a year ago. An archaeological rubbish dump has been revealed, made up of the remains of centuries of ordinary Venetians' lives. Among other things, ancient chicken bones, shopping trolleys and coins from Byzantine, Ottoman and Napoleonic times have been uncovered. Regrettably the destruction of La Fenice, the city's glorious opera house, was partly caused by the fact that several nearby canals had been drained. Because they were dry, firefighters had no water to pump onto the blaze.

14______Of course, the real Venice is not just humdrum daily life or the remnants of history. Its churches house some of Europe's finest art, including Tintoretto's "Paradise" which is the largest oil painting in the world. For many visitors there is just too much to take in - too many works of art tucked away in too many churches. Crowds are thickest in Piazza San Marco, where children caught up in the excitement queue to have their faces painted, and tourists and revellers alike gather in the Cafe Florian, making it seem like a curiosity shop into which passers-by peer.

15______Should the crowds become too much for you, it is easy to escape to one of Venice's outlying islands, which are barely visible across the lagoon in the chilly winter mist. After the cemetery island of San Michele you come to Murano, where glass is still being made. It is blown, rolled and twisted in ways that have not changed since the 13th century. Fine Murano glass is found in museums everywhere, but the workshops where it is made are filling the surrounding water with arsenic, meaning that the lagoon is becoming severely polluted. But apart from the traditional July dip in the Adriatic after the fiesta del Rendetore fireworks, and the occasional hapless visitor who slips on slimy steps, no one swims in the lagoon.

16_______Beyond Murano lies Burano, where the houses are painted in powder blue, brick red and every colour in between. The slow tolling of the monastery bell on neighbouring Torcello across the water somehow emphasises the tranquility of the outlying islands, creating an atmosphere which is in stark contrast to the sometimes overwhelming noise and crowds of Venice itself.

17_______Nightlife in Venice is reputed to be dull, but after dark it is one of the most thrilling cities on earth. If you're lucky a thick fog will roll in. Stone walls begin to drip; you hear snatches of conversations, and footsteps and voices echo from shadowy alleys. It is certainly a fascinating experience, one that is unique to this beautiful, multi-faceted city.

A. You can escape from the crowds and witness the creation of beautiful objects - but beware of the water!

B. Everyday life takes place on and near the water.

C. Emptied canals have revealed layers of history - and caused a great tragedy.

D. This is not a city for the faint-hearted, as there are dangers around every corner.

E. Going further afield, you can find beautiful scenery and a peaceful atmosphere.

F. It may seem to be exclusively a place of magical excitement, but there is more to it than that.

G. Darkness creates an intriguing atmosphere which can only be experienced in Venice.

H. From viewing great masterpieces to catching glimpses of cafe life, there is no end of things to see and do.

Text 3

Text 4

Choose from (A-H) the one which best fits each of (1-7). There is one choice you do not need to use.

A. CAR RACE E. HELPFUL MACHINE
B. REAL PLEASURE F. DIFFERENT TOYS
C. FAVOURITE TOY G. UNUSUAL CAR
D. SERIOUS PROBLEMS H. NOBLE GIFT
1. Things boys play with are not like objects girls play with. Boys often have more freedom to run about and they get guns, train sets, toy trucks and toy cars. Electronic games are very popular among young boys. Toys for girls are much quieter and more passive. Young girls often get things like dolls, dresses, and pictures to colour.
2. “Teddies” are an important part of British culture. Most people in Britain have a teddy bear when they are young, and most people are very fond of their special bear, even when they are 30 or 40 years old! Many famous people like film stars or pop stars or politicians collect “teddies”. These people have donated their old friends to the teddy bear museum which is in Stratford-on-Avon in England. Many tourists go to this place, because it is the birthplace of Shakespeare, but they often love the teddy bear museum more.
3. Computer games are a multimillion dollar industry, but people who really enjoy games are not satisfied with playing against the computer. They want to play against real people and most computer games allow you to do that just by joining up with other players on the Internet. Regular players say that this is where their true enjoyment of games can be found. With some games up to 60 people can take part. It's a good way to meet people and it gives you something to talk about.
4. The big American company General Motors has developed a vehicle that uses the power of the sun instead of petrol. The vehicle is called Sunraycer which means "ray of the sun"+"racer". Sunraycer has just taken part in a race against 25 solar-powered vehicles. Sunraycer covered the great distance in 45 hours at a speed of 41 miles an hour at temperatures as high as 48°C. It is certainly the car of the future.
5. Computers are a great technological invention of the 20th century. Their advantages are numerous yet much can be said against them. The main disadvantage of computers is that looking at a screen for long periods of time is bad for the eyes, and sitting on a chair for hours is not healthy. Also, people who use computers have a tendency to become anti-social and stay at home. The strongest argument against the use of computers is that the more jobs which are done by computers, the less are done by people.
6. Thirty years ago few people realized that computers were about to become part of our everyday lives. This short period of time has seen great changes in business, education and public administration. Jobs which took weeks to do in past, are now carried out in minutes. Schoolchildren have become as familiar with hardware and software as their parents were with pencils and exercise books and they don’t worry about mistakes having a computer.
7. Generous granddad Martin Rossiter, from Macclesfield, has built a tree house for his grandchildren – costing £35,000! The top-of-the-range two-storey tree house features a series of rope walkways between the sycamores, oaks and pine trees in Martin’s garden and took builders five days to make. He plans to add running water, electricity and bunk beds to make it perfect play-den. Martin has 12 grandchildren – aged from 2 to12 – but the rest of his family believe he secretly made the house for himself!

Text 5

Read the text below. For questions (1-10) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).

Winter Olympics

In a break with Olympic tradition, the organizers decided to split the Summer and Winter Games. By bringing forward the Winter Games by two years, the difficulty of organizing the two events can now be spread more equally over a period of four years.

It was the small town of Lillehammer in Norway that was chosen to host the 1994 Winter Games. The Norwegians took their responsibilities very seriously, and created a magnificent setting for the games. The highlight was the building of an Ice Stadium actually built into the side of a mountain at a nearby town. In the event of a permanent home being found for the games, this will ensure that Lillehammer will be high on the list of possible sites.

There were some problems in the month leading up to the games, but the opening ceremony was so well-planned and so exciting that everyone felt optimistic about them. The Olympic Flame arrived in the arena carried by a skier coming down the ski-jump, and was then handed to the Crown Prince of Norway, who officially opened the games. The optimism felt was in many ways justified as the games produced many good sporting moments.

Several Olympic records were broken and there was generally a wonderful atmosphere, which was mostly due to the friendliness and warmth of the Norwegians. Unfortunately, these games may well be remembered for the wrong reasons, as disputes about the judges’ decisions in some of the main events would create bad feelings. It was believed that the British Ice Dance champions were victims of unfair judging when they only placed third. The sport of Ice Dancing had already been under attack; certain critics thought it should not be an Olympic sport, and this row over medals did not help its image.

In the speed skating competitions, the British again felt as though they were being unfairly judged. One skater was disqualified for touching another skater after it seemed he had won a silver medal in the 1,000 meters event. Another speed skater was forced to race with a broken skate and did very poorly as a result. In spite of these unfortunate events, the British still had their highest count of medals since 1948.

One story, though, dominated the entire games. This was the very ugly dispute between two American ice skaters. Their arguments became almost a soap opera, the result being that a record American television audience watched the competition.

1. What decision was made about the Summer and Winter Games?

a. To hold them every four years

b. To separate them

c. To spend more time organizing them

d. To stretch them over five years

2. What was it that the hosts took seriously?

a. Their town

b. The setting

c. Their country

d. Their responsibilities

3. What will ensure that Lillehammer may be a permanent site for the Olympic Games?

a. The Ice Stadium

b. The Norwegian Crown Prince

c. The mountains

d. The ski-jump

4. What do people think produced the wonderful atmosphere in Norway?

a. The opening ceremony

b. The sporting events

c. New Olympic records

d. The personalities of the Norwegians

5. What did some British competitors think?

a. They weren’t good enough to compete

b. They were being disqualified too often

c. They weren’t being judged fairly

d. They were under attack

6. What was the reason for more Americans watching the Games?

a. An unpleasant argument

b. The disqualification of a skater

c. The speed-skating

d. The Ice Dancing

Listening Comprehension Test for 9th Form Students

Directions:

In this Test you will carefully listen to a text read aloud twice. The text is followed by 20 tasks. You should do tasks 1 through 10 following the first reading of the text on the basis of what is stated or implied in the text. The text will be read a second time and you should do tasks 11 through 20 following the second reading of the text on the basis of what is stated or implied in the text. For each task you will choose from four possible answers (A, B, C, or D), or from two letters (T, F) as specified prior to each task.

Questions 1 through 10 (on your answer sheet put ‘T’ if the statement is true, ‘F’ if it is false).

1. Generally speaking, women and men "both prefer reading about people than reading about gadgets or equipment.

2. Experts used to believe that parents had a lot of influence on what hobbies their children liked.

3. Even when they are babies, girls seem more interested in people than boys.

4. It seems to be easier for little girls to get on with people than for boys.

5. People with a type S brain get lost easily.

6. It is extremely unusual for women to have a type B brain.

7. Three types of brain are systematic, emotional and balanced.

8. It is proved that the type of brain you have obligatory depends on your gender.

9. Researchers think that there is a type of brain which is better than the others.

10. Women choose more romantic things for reading.

Questions 11 through 20 (on your answer sheet circle the correct letter A, B, C, or D).

11. Researchers found out that

a) Both men and women find some things easier and other things more difficult to do

b) Both men and women have typically male or female brain

c) Both males and females have the type B brain

12. Boys are more selfish and aggressive than girls

a) When they are 12 months old

b) When they are just born

c) When they start walking

13. For the reporters the difference in the choice of typical male and female hobbies

a) Was very surprising

b) Was an expected result

c) Was not important discovery

14. Typically male and female interests can be seen when children

a) Are toddlers

b) Become adults

c) Are babies

15. People who are born with type B brain

a) Are interested in constructing and organizing things

b) Are interested in treating people with care

c) Are interested in systems and emotions

16. It is found out that

a) All males have type S brain and all females have type E brain

b) Both males and females can have type B brain

c) An average male has type S brain and an average female tends to have type E brain.

17. The words “comforting sounds” in the text means

a) Showing that you understand and care about someone’s problems

b) Making someone feel better when they are anxious

c) Allowing people to do what they want

18. Baby girls are better

a) At looking at other people

b) At looking at moving objects

c) At looking at bridges and vehicles

19. People who are born with S type brain tend to be good at

a) Planning and collecting

b) Planning and orienting

c) Planning, orienting and collecting

20. The research has been done to help

a) make all of us care about ourselves and not other people

b) make all of us allow people to do what they want especially when we don’t agree with it

c) make all of us behave in an angry way towards other people

Tape Script

Like father, like son? Perhaps not…

A new report suggests that our brain chemistry at birth is as important as our upbringing

Go into a busy newsagent's and have a look at what kind of things people are reading. The chances are that the women are reading about fashion, beauty, romance or relationships and the men are reading about cars, photography, equipment or sport. This ought not to be a surprise. After all, these choices are also seen in typical male and female hobbies - men generally enjoy things such as looking after their cars, buying new parts to their stereos, bird-watching or playing computer games while women seem to prefer keeping in touch with friends and entertaining.

For a long time, experts thought that these differences between male and female interests depended on how parents brought up their children and indeed society in general. However, when we look at young babies, we see that boys and girls have interests which we can call typically 'male' or female' from a very early age. A baby girl, as young as 12 months old, is sympathetic when she sees a sad or worried face —she also looks sad and makes comforting sounds. Baby girls also make more eye contact and look longer at other people. Boys of the same age look longer at mechanical objects — toys that spin, light up or move. Later, when they become toddlers, boys usually enjoy putting things together and building towns or bridges or vehicles. Boys are often more selfish and aggressive when they play with other children while girls are better at joining in with others. Just like the adults.

So where do these differences between male and female behavior come from? Although it is true that culture and upbringing play an important role, many scientists now believe that the answer also lies in the amount of male and female hormones in the mother's body before a child's birth. Research has shown that this balance of hormones leads to three different types of brain: type E, type S and type B. People who are born with a type S or male brain are generally interested in systems: constructing and organizing things and working out how things work. They tend to be good at working out where they are from maps, making things from plans or collecting things. Others have a Type E or female brain which means they are good at understanding other people’s emotions and treating people with care because they are sensitive themselves. Others are born with characteristics of both these male and female brains — this is called the type B or balanced brain.

Perhaps the most crucial thing that the researchers found out was that the type of brain you have does not have to depend on your sex. Not all men have the male brain and not all women have the female brain. But on average, more males than females have a type S brain, and more females than males have a type E brain.

So, does this mean that one sort of brain is superior? No, not at all. Some people find some things easier to do than others but both sexes have their strengths and their weaknesses. Researchers hope that understanding how people are born with different types of brain can help make all of us more tolerant of difference.

10 клас

Writing Test for 10h Form Students

You should use your own ideas, knowledge and experience and support your arguments with relevant evidence.

Write at least 250 words.

Reading Comprehension Test for 10th Form Students (37 tasks)

Directions: In this Test you will read four texts. Each text is followed by 5 – 15 tasks. You should do the tasks following a text on the basis of what is stated or implied in that text.

Text 1

Text 2

Choose from (A-H) the one which best fits each of (1-7). There is one choice you do not need to use.

Text 3

Read the text below. Choose from (A-H) the one which best fits each of (1-6). There are two choices you do not need to use.

Best Teen Jobs Advice From Bill Gates

By Sonja Mishek

Whether you love or hate Bill Gates...he sure hit the nail on the head when he recently gave a speech at a high school graduation.

Here Are 10 Job Advice Rules Your Teens Are NOT Learning in School:

Rule 1: Life is not fair - get used to it! Life is especially not fair at work. (1)_____.

Rule 2: The world doesn't care about your self-esteem. Neither does your boss. (2)_____.

Rule 3: You will NOT make $60,000 a year right out of high school. Or become a vice president out of college. If you don't believe me, just ask any recent graduate.

Rule 4: If you think your teacher is tough, wait till you get a boss. Or obnoxious co-workers you're stuck working with 8 hours a day.

Rule 5: Flipping burgers is not beneath your dignity. Your Grandparents had a different word for burger flipping; they called it opportunity. I think every teen should be required to work at a fast food restaurant. (3)_____.

Rule 6: If you mess up, it's not your parents' fault. So don't whine about your mistakes, learn from them. (4)_____. And not make excuses for them.

Rule 7: Before you were born, your parents weren't as boring as they are now. (5)_____.

Rule 8: Your school may have done away with winners and losers, but life HAS NOT. In some schools, they have abolished failing grades and they'll give you as MANY TIMES as you want to get the right answer. This doesn't bear the slightest resemblance to ANYTHING in real life.

Rule 9: Life is not divided into semesters. You don't get summers off and few employers are interested in helping you FIND YOURSELF. Do that on your own time. There's no spring break either. You'll be lucky if you get 2 weeks of paid vacation.

Rule 10: Be nice to nerds. Chances are you'll end up working for one. (6)_____. No one does.

If you agree with these rules...pass it on. If you can read these rules...THANK a teacher!

A The best thing you can do for your kids is let them make their own mistakes.

B He wants the job to get done - and done well.

C Your boss doesn't care if you were popular in high school.

D There's no extra credit at work if you screw something up.

E They got that way from paying your bills, doing your laundry, and listening to you talk about how cool you are.

F Some work harder than others for less pay...some work less for more pay.

G They'll learn the meaning of hard work and be motivated to further their education!

H And if you don't do your job - you'll be fired.

Text 4

Read the text below. For questions (1-7) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).

Running Free

Barefoot Training

By Mike Ryan

In the world of running shoes, the trend has been toward more cushion, more support, more comfort. But, to a small group of running coaches and foot specialists, modern athletic shoes are doing to feet what plush living room sofas and TV remotes have been doing to people: making them lazy, physically underdeveloped and more prone to injuries.

A few years ago when Nike was looking for the next big advance in running shoe design, they asked some of the world’s most respected track and field coaches for advice. A common response must have made their heads spin a little: We don’t need any more shoes, we need fewer shoes, in fact, and maybe we need no shoe. Give us the bare human foot.

Legendary Stanford track coach Vin Lananna said, “I believe that athletes that have been training barefoot run faster and have fewer injuries. It’s just common sense.” Vin regularly put his athletes through their paces barefoot on the grass of the university’s practice golf course. Other coaches agree, and point to the foot/ankle strength and resistance to injury seen in African and Caribbean runners who have grown up playing and running barefoot much of the time.

So, the research and development team at Nike set out to make a shoe that acted like it wasn’t there; one that trained and worked the foot as nature intended. What’s the point, you may ask? Why not just train in your bare feet?

Well, that’s fine if you have a finely groomed golf course to run on, but most athletes train in the street, in the gym, on the track, or out on the trails. This still calls for a shoe that not only offers protection from glass and pebbles, but also from the strike of the foot on hard bruising surfaces.

The first step was to measure exactly what happened to the bare foot when it ran: what the contact areas were between the foot and the ground, how the ankle and toes moved. Once they collected the data, the next step was to create a shoe that could reproduce the natural foot movement. The design team, led by Toby Hatfield and Eric Evar, struggled through innumerable concepts and finally came up with an entirely new kind of shoe. Deep slices in the sole, virtually no ankle support and room for the toes to spread out and move; all head-turning designs. Then it was off to testing again, to make sure the shoe really imitated barefoot running. There was a lot of “back to the drawing board” fine tuning but eventually the Nike Free was created and ready for real-world testing.

Earlier this year, in Germany at the University of Cologne the results of a season-long research study of university track athletes showed enhanced performance and speed by training in the Nike Free shoes. One key point is that Nike Free is a “training shoe,” and Nike Free and barefoot training are tools to make you stronger.

1 The author compares sneakers with plush sofas and TV remotes to argue that modern athletic shoes may ______________ .

A bring harmful comfort

B support athlete’s feet

C cushion any blows

D protect against injuries

2 How did Nike designers’ react to the experts’ advice?

A They were enthusiastic.

B They were confused.

C They were skeptical.

D They were set against.

3 According to Vin Lananna, which of the following explains the need for a shoe that could reproduce the barefoot movement?

A Training barefoot is just common sense.

B It was a request by the design team at Nike.

C The traditional sneaker design was on the way out.

D Training barefoot improves runners’ stamina.

4 Why cannot modern athletes just train in bare feet?

A They don’t see the point.

B They are used to shoes.

C They may get injured.

D They haven’t thought of it.

5 The word ‘head-turning’ (designs) in the text is closest in meaning to ‘_______’.

A attractive

B sophisticated

C breakthrough

D incredible

6 By mentioning “back to the drawing board” fine tuning” the author means that the Nike designers___.

A used the drawings of the previous models

B had to start the procedures all over again

C made a lot of drawings before fine tuning

D tested their new concept back and forth.

7 According to the text which of the following is true of the Nike Free model?

A It needs a finely-groomed track.

B It lacks real-world testing.

C It relieves stress from trainings.

D It boosts training efficiency.

Text 5

Read the text and answer questions 20-30 below by marking letters A, B, C or D.

The Battle of Gettysburg

1. In June 1863, a Confederate army under the command of General Lee encountered a Union army commanded by General Meade near the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The ensuing battle, which lasted three days, is considered the most important single engagement of the American Civil War in that it effectually ended the Confederates’ last major invasion of the North. Once the Southern Confederate army’s offensive strategy was destroyed at Gettysburg, the Southern states were forced to fight a defensive war in which their weaker manufacturing capacity and transportation infrastructure led ultimately to defeat.

2. General Lee had ordered his Confederate army to invade the northern state of Pennsylvania in the hope of enticing the Union army into a vulnerable position. The strategy was also aimed at increasing the war weariness of the North and ultimately at leading Abraham Lincoln’s government into concluding a peace deal and recognizing the independence of the Confederate South.

3. On the morning of July 1, the battle opened with Confederate troops attacking a Union cavalry division to the west of Gettysburg at McPherson Ridge. The Union forces were outnumbered but managed to hold their positions initially. Reinforcements came to both sides, but eventually the Union forces were overpowered and were driven back to the south of Gettysburg. Thousands of their soldiers were captured in this retreat. During the night the bulk of the Union army arrived and the troops labored to create strong defensive positions along Cemetery Ridge, a long rise of land running southward from outside the town, and on two hills just to the north and east of this crest. When it was fully assembled, the whole Union army formed a defensive arc resembling a fishhook. The Confederate forces, about one mile distant, faced the Union positions from the west and north in a larger concave arc.

4. Throughout July 2 Lee’s forces attacked both Union flanks, leaving thousands of dead on both sides. To the south the Confederates overran the Union’s advance lines, but they failed to dislodge the Union forces from their main positions. A strategically important hill on the Union army’s left flank known as Little Round Top was stormed by the Confederates, but Meade’s forces fought a skillful defensive battle and the attacks were unsuccessful. There was a devastating number of casualties on both sides.

5. On the third day of battle, General Lee decided to concentrate his attack on the center of the Union forces ranged along Cemetery Ridge. _A_He reasoned, against the advice of others in his senior staff, that since the Union forces had reinforced both their flanks, their central defensive positions would be weaker and easier to overrun. _B_ As a prelude to the attack, the Confederate artillery bombarded the ridge for two hours, but inflicted less damage than they had expected, due to poor visibility. _C_ When the bombardment ceased, a Confederate infantry force of about 13,000 men charged courageously across the open land towards the Union lines on Cemetery Ridge about a mile away. _D_ This attack, now known as Pickett’s Charge after the general whose division led it, failed in its objective to break the Union line.

6. With the failure of Pickett’s Charge, the battle was essentially over and Lee’s retreat began the following day. His exhausted army staggered toward safer territory in the South, leaving behind a scene of terrible devastation. Both sides had suffered excessive losses of men, but the Union had succeeded in preventing the Confederates from invading the North. So Gettysburg proved to be a decisive turning point in the Civil War and was celebrated as the biggest Union victory of the war.

20. In paragraph 1, the author suggests that the Confederates lost the Civil War largely because their:

A leaders were ineffective

B industrial capacity was weaker

C soldiers were unprofessional

D strategy was poorly planned

21. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the following sentence? General Lee had ordered the Confederate army to invade the northern state of Pennsylvania in the hope of enticing the Union army into a vulnerable position.

A General Lee tried to lure his soldiers into invading the North in order to defeat the Union army.

B The Union army was in danger of an invasion by General Lee’s army due to its location in Pennsylvania.

C In the hope of luring the Union army into an exposed situation, General Lee’s forces marched into Pennsylvania.

D The state of Pennsylvania was a suitable location for drawing out the Union army into a dangerous situation.

22. What can be inferred from paragraph 2 about the North’s attitude about the war?

A It was angry at the loss of freedoms.

B It was keen on continuing the war.

C It was keen on independence.

D It was tired of waging war.

23. We can infer from the text that, at Gettysburg, the Union army largely played which kind of strategy?

A An offensive strategy

B A strategy of hit and run

C A defensive strategy

D A strategy of wait and see

24. The phrase “this crest” in paragraph 3 refers to

A the Confederate forces

B Cemetery Ridge

C Union army reinforcements

D the town of Gettysburg

25. Why does the author say the positions of the Union army resembled a fishhook?

A To give the reader a mental picture of the troops’ positions

B To explain the appearance of the sharp pointed hooks used as weapons

C To suggest that taking a fishhook formation is a good tactic in war

D To imply that the ridge had a curved shape like that of a fishhook

26. The word “devastating” in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to

A important

B desperate

C decisive

D ruinous

27. All the following are implied in paragraph 5 as contributing to the failure of Pickett’s Charge EXCEPT

A General Lee’s refusal to listen to his generals’ opinion

B the Confederate artillery’s failure to cause much damage

C the Union’s center being stronger than anticipated

D the Confederate infantry not performing at full strength

28. Look at the four gaps A, B, C and D in paragraph 5 that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the paragraph to fit it best:

They were subjected to heavy artillery and rifle fire and sustained a huge number of casualties.

29. According to the text the battle of Gettysburg ended with

A Lee signing a document of surrender

B the Southern territories becoming much safer

C Lee’s army devastating the countryside in their retreat

D a high death toll for both the Union and the Confederates

30. According to the text why was the battle of Gettysburg so decisive?

A The Confederates lost so many troops.

B It created war weariness on both sides.

C The Confederates failed to capture Northern territory.

D The Union troops gained confidence.

Listening Comprehension Test for 10th Form Students

Directions:

In this Test you will carefully listen to a text read aloud twice. The text is followed by 20 tasks. You should do tasks 1 through 10 following the first reading of the text on the basis of what is stated or implied in the text. The text will be read a second time and you should do tasks 11 through 20 following the second reading of the text on the basis of what is stated or implied in the text. For each task you will choose from four possible answers (A, B, C, or D), or from two letters (T, F) as specified prior to each task. Choose the best answer and mark the letter of your choice on the Answer Sheet.

Glossary: rupture: to break or to burst

Questions 1 through 10 (on your answer sheet put ‘T’ if the statement is true, ‘F’ if it is false).

1. Harry Houdini was a master of transformation.

2. Houdini sat for a portrait.

3. The sketch was done by a professional painter from the academy.

4. Houdini expected the following blow from one of his visitors.

5. Joselyn Gordon came to Houdini to check whether Harry could stand any punch to the belly.

6. Houdini died on the same day after the fatal punch.

7. Houdini immediately sent for a doctor after the punch.

8. Houdini felt feverish and weak during his performance.

9. He died in 1926 and was buried in the family plot in LA.

10. It was not discovered that he had suffered a ruptured appendix.

Questions 11 through 20 (on your answer sheet circle the correct letter A, B, C, or D).

11. This passage deals mainly with:

A. the quality of medicine in the 1920s.

B. Houdini’s final days.

C. the death of a famous magician.

D. student’s carelessness.

12. The McGill University student visited Houdini a second time because he:

A. wanted an autograph.

B. wanted to bring a friend.

C. wanted to make a sketch.

D. had been invited.

13. Harry Houdini died of:

A. a complication from a broken ankle.

B. a ruptured appendix.

C. peritonitis, an inflammation of the intestine.

D. a breakdown during a performance.

14. Houdini died in:

A. 5 days after the punch.

B. 7 days after the punch.

C. 9 days after the punch.

D. 11 days after the punch.

15. After he broke down on the stage he:

A. was immediately hospitalized.

B. was given a medical examination.

C. refused from being examined.

D. left the stage.

16. Houdini:

A. did not notice any immediate problem after the incident.

B. started to tell the boys that the success lied in his well-trained abdominal muscles.

C. did not want to continue the conversation with boys after the punch.

D. felt feverish that evening.

17. When Houdini found out about his illness he:

A.refused to take part in the show for about a week.

B. decided to spend the following days resting.

C. asked the helper to find that boxer to talk to him.

D.fought the inevitable for about a week.

18. The dangerous thing about the punch was:

A.its great force.

B. its unexpectedness.

C. the fact that the boxer struck his belly.

D.the fact that Houdini could never withstand the punch to the belly.

19. At that time peritonitis was always fatal because:

A. there were no drugs to cure it.

B. it was hard to diagnose it.

C. it usually broke out suddenly.

D. there were no specialists to diagnose it.

20. Houdini:

A. prepared himself for a punch.

B. was not expecting his guest to strike him.

C. was glad to help the amateur boxer to check the information he had heard.

D. received one blow.

Tape Script

His Final Escape

Many accounts have circulated concerning the death of this renowned magician and escape artist. The true story is an interesting but tragic one.

Houdini suffered an ankle injury in October of 1926. On the twenty - second day of that fateful month, he was relaxing in his dressing room at the Princess Theatre in Montreal, the injured foot stretched out before him, when he was visited by a young student from McGill University. The student had previously done a sketch of Houdini, and, having been invited to meet him again, decided to bring two of his friends along. One of them, an amateur boxer named Joselyn Gordon Whitehead, asked Houdini whether he could truly withstand any punch to the belly without flinching, as he had once asserted. Houdini apparently nodded somewhat absent-mindedly, not expecting what followed. Whitehead leaned down and struck him in the abdomen with great force. It is uncertain how many blows were delivered. Houdini gasped and explained that it was necessary to tighten the abdominal muscles before being struck.

Houdini did not notice any immediate problem after this incident, but during his performance on the following Saturday he felt feverish and weak. He broke down on stage the next Monday, and was immediately given a medical examination. It was discovered that he had suffered a ruptured appendix. Worse, peritonitis, an inflammation of the intestine, had set in. At that time the disease was always fatal, since drugs to combat it had not yet been developed. Although he fought the inevitable, in typical Houdini fashion, for about a week, he finally died on October 31, 1926. He was buried in the family plot in a cemetery in Queens, New York.

11 клас

Writing Test for 11h Form Students

You should use your own ideas, knowledge and experience and support your arguments with relevant evidence.

Write at least 250 words.

Reading Comprehension Test for 11th Form Students (38 tasks)

Directions: In this Test you will read four texts. Each text is followed by 5 – 10 tasks. You should do the tasks following a text on the basis of what is stated or implied in that text.

Task 2

For questions 26-29, read the article and choose the best variant from A, B, C or D, according to the text of the article.

America’s oldest art?

Set within treacherously steep cliffs, and hidden away in the secluded valleys of northeast Brazil, is some of South America’s most significant and spectacular rock-art. Most of the art so far discovered from the ongoing excavations comes from the archeologically-important National Park of the Serra da Capivara in the state of Piaui, and it is causing quite a controversy. What is the reason for the uproar? The art is being dated to around 25,000 or perhaps, according to some archeologists, even 36,000 years ago. If correct, this is set to challenge the widely held view that the Americas were first colonized from the north, via the Bering Strait from eastern Siberia at around 10,000 BC, only moving down into Central and South America in the millennia thereafter.

Prior to the designation of 130,000 hectares as a National Park, the rock-art sites were difficult to get to, and often dangerous to enter. In ancient times, this inaccessibility must have heightened the importance of the sites, and indeed of the people who painted on the rocks. Wild animals and human figures dominate the art, and are incorporated into often-complex scenes involving hunting, supernatural beings, fighting and dancing. The artists depicted the animals that roamed the local ancient brushwood forest. The large mammals are usually painted in groups and tend to be shown in a running stance, as though trying to escape from hunting parties. Processions – lines of human and animal figures – also appear of great importance to these ancient artists. Might such lines represent family units or groups of warriors? On a number of panels, rows of stylised figures, some numbering up to 30 individual figures, were painted using the natural undulating contours of the rock surface, so evoking the contours of the surrounding landscape. Other interesting, but very rare, occurrences are scenes that show small human figures holding on to and dancing around a tree, possibly involved in some form of a ritual dance.

Due to the favourable climatic conditions, the imagery on many panels is in a remarkable state of preservation. Despite this, however, there are serious conservation issues that affect their long-term survival. The chemical and mineral qualities of the rock on which the imagery is painted is fragile and on several panels it is unstable. As well as the secretion of sodium carbonate on the rock surface, complete panel sections have, over the ancient and recent past, broken away from the main rock surface. These have then become buried and sealed into sometimes-ancient floor deposits. Perversely, this form of natural erosion and subsequent deposition has assisted archeologists in dating several major rock-art sites. Of course, dating the art is extremely difficult given the non-existence of plant and animal remains that might be scientifically dated. However, there are a small number of sites in the Serra da Capivara that are giving up their secrets through good systematic excavation. Thus, at Toca do Boqueirao da Pedra Furada, rock-art researcher Niéde Guidon managed to obtain a number of chronological periods. At different levels of excavation, she located fallen painted rock fragments, which she was able to date to at least 36,000 years ago.

Along with the painted fragments, crude stone tools were found. Also discovered were a series of scientifically datable sites of fireplaces, or hearths, the earliest dated to 46,000 BC, arguably the oldest dates for human habitation in the Americas.

However, these conclusions are not without controversy. Critics, mainly from North America, have suggested that the hearths may in fact be a natural phenomenon, the result of seasonal brushwood fires. Several North American researchers have gone further and suggested that the rock-art from this site dates from no earlier than about 3,730 years ago, based on the results of limited radiocarbon dating. Adding further fuel to the general debate is the fact that the artists in the area of the National Park tended not to draw over old motifs (as often occurs with rock-art), which makes it hard to work out the relative chronology of the images or styles. However, the diversity of imagery and the narrative the paintings create from each of the many sites within the National Park suggests different artists were probably making their art at different times, and potentially using each site over many thousands of years.

With fierce debates thus ranging over the dating, where these artists originate from, is also still very much open to speculation. The traditional view ignores all the early dating evidence from the South American rock-art sites. In a revised scenario, some paleo-anthropologists are now suggesting that modern humans may have migrated from Africa using the strong currents of the Atlantic Ocean some 60,000 years or more ago, while others suggest a more improbable colonization coming from the Pacific Ocean. Yet, while either hypothesis is plausible, there is still no supporting archaeological evidence between the South American coastline and the interior.

Rather, it seems possible that there were a number of waves of human colonization of the Americas occurring possibly over a 60,000 – 100,000 years period, probably using the Bering Strait as a land bridge to cross into the Americas.

Despite the compelling evidence from South America, it stands alone: the earliest secure human evidence yet found in the state of Oregon in North America only dates to 12,300 years BC.

So this is a fierce debate that is likely to go on for many more years. However, the splendid rock-art and its allied archaeology of northeast Brazil, described here, is playing a huge and significant role in the discussion.

26. The question mark at the end of the title is used to emphasise that

A the figures of wild animals and human beings cannot be called ‘art’ in the modern sense of the word.

B South and North Americas are competing for having been populated earlier in the history of mankind.

C the time when the rock-art was created has not yet been determined with compelling evidence.

D critics from North America claim that some oldest findings such as hearths may in fact be a natural phenomenon.

27. According to the first paragraph, the rock-art in Serra da Capivara may revolutionise accepted ideas about

A the way primitive people lived in North America.

B the date when the earliest people arrived in South America.

C the origin of the people who crossed the Bering Strait.

D the variety of cultures which developed in South America.

28. How did the ancient artists use the form of the rock where they painted?

A To mimic the shape of the countryside nearby.

B To emphasise the shape of different animals.

C To give added light and shade to their paintings.

D To give the impression of distance in complex works.

29. What does the writer say is unusual about the rock-artists of Serra da Capivara?

A They had a very wide range of subject-matter.

B Their work often appears to be illustrating a story.

C They tended to use a variety of styles in one painting.

D They rarely made new paintings on top of old ones.

For questions 30-36 choose

A (YES) if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

B (NO) if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer

C (NOT GIVEN) if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

30. Archaeologists have completed their survey of the rock-art in Piaui.

31. The location of the rock-art suggests that the artists had a significant role in their society.

32. The paintings of animals show they were regarded as sacred by the ancient humans.

33. Some damage to paintings is most likely due to changes in the weather of the region.

34. The fact that some paintings were buried is useful to archaeologists.

35. The tools found near some paintings were probably used for hunting animals.

36. The North American researchers have confirmed Niéde Guidon’s dating of the paintings.

For questions 37-40 complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-F, below.

37. Materials derived from plants or animals 38. The discussions about the ancient hearths 39. Theories about where the first South Americans originated from 40. The findings of archaeologists in Oregon A are giving rise to a great deal of debate among paleo-anthropologists. B do not support the earliest dates suggested for the arrival of people in America. C are absent from rock-art sites in the Serra da Capivara. D have not been accepted by academics outside America. E centre on whether or not they are actually man-made. F reflect the advances in scientific dating methods.

Task 3

You are going to read a magazine article. 6 sentences have been removed. Choose the most suitable sentence from the list A-G to (1-6) of the article. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

Task 4

For questions 16 – 25 fill in the gaps with the words, derived from the words on the right. Put the words in the correct grammar form. There is an example (0) for you.

It must be said that Dover was not 0. vastly improved by daylight, VAST

but I liked it. I liked its small scale and cosy air, and the way

everyone said ‘Good morning’, and ‘Hello’, and ‘Dreadful weather

– but it must 16 ______ up’, to each other, and the sense that this BRIGHT

was just one more in a very long series of quiet, well-ordered,

pleasantly 17 __________days. Nobody in the whole EVENT

Dover would have any particular reasons to remember 21 March

1973, except for me and a 18 __________of children born that day. HAND

I didn’t know how early one could decently begin asking for a

room in England, so I thought I would leave it till mid-morning.

With time on my hands, I made a thorough search for a guesthouse

that looked 19 ______ and quiet, friendly and not too costly, ATTRACT

and at the stroke of ten o’clock presented myself on the doorstep of

the one I had carefully selected, taking care not to 20 ________ the COMPOSE

milk bottles.

It was a small hotel that was really a guesthouse. I don’t

remember its name, but I well remember the 21 _________. She PROPRIETOR

showed me to a room, then gave me a tour of the facilities

and 22 _______ the many complicated rules for residing there. LINE

Task 5

Read the text and complete the gaps (1–5) with the sentences (A–F). There is one extra sentence.

A In keeping with these experiences, our sense of humour is more sophisticated.

B This proves they must be somehow attached to the principle or person being ridiculed or put down in the joke.

C It is hard to believe that you can find anything to laugh about in situations like that.

D A lot of what goes on seems ridiculous and surprising, which strikes them as funny.

E It is a fact of life that culture and community provide lots of stories for jokes.

F It is a time of life when you lack confidence.

Why don’t we all laugh at the same things?

Experts say that several obvious differences in people affect what they find humorous. The most significant seems to be age.

Infants and children are constantly discovering the world around them. (1 _____ ). What’s funny to a toddler consists of short and simple concepts. Along with the ridiculous and the surprising, children – much to their parents’ disappointment – also appreciate jokes where cruelty is present and what we refer to as ‘toilet humour’. Psychologists claim that to children, dealing with bodily functions is simply another way of exploring their fascinating new environment.

The pre-teen and teenage years are, almost universally, tense and rebellious. Lots of adolescents and teens laugh at jokes that focus on sex, food, authority figures etc. (2 _____ ). So young people often use humour as a tool to protect themselves or to feel superior.

As we mature, both our physical bodies and our attitudes towards life and the world grow and change. Since there is a certain amount of intelligence involved in ‘getting’ a joke, our sense of humour becomes more developed as we learn more. By the time we have matured, we have experienced much of life, including tragedy and success. (3 _____ ). We laugh at other people and ourselves in shared common embarrassments. The adult sense of humour is usually characterised as more subtle, more tolerant and less judgmental about the differences in people. The things we find funny as a result of our age or developmental stage seem to be related to the stressful experiences we go through during this time. Basically, we laugh at the issues that stress us out.

Another factor that affects what we find funny is the culture or community from which we come. Have you ever laughed at a joke and realised that if you were from anywhere else in the world, it just wouldn’t be funny? (4 _____ ). There are economic, political and social issues that are easy to laugh about, but only the people living in that culture may understand it. For example, a joke from a small country might not have universal appeal because it would be so little understood. The big, influential, much-observed United States might be the exception to this rule. Thanks to media and movies, most people around the world know what is going on here. So jokes about a situation in the United States can be enjoyed pretty much across the globe.

When people say ‘that’s not funny’, the theorist Veatch says they mean either ‘It’s offensive’ or ‘So, what’s the point?’ Some people find a joke or situation offensive. (5 _____ ). So racist and sexist jokes are offensive to many people who feel strongly about fighting prejudice in the world. According to Veatch, when someone says, ‘So, what’s the point?’ it indicates the presence of a moral or emotional attachment or commitment to the joke’s ‘victim’.

Listening Comprehension Test for 11th Form Students

I. You will hear a lecture about different learning styles. On your answer sheet put T if the statement is true, F if it is false.

1 Learning styles are different approaches to or ways of learning

2 Visual learners need to feel the teacher’s body language and facial expressions to fully understand the content of a lesson.

3 Visual learners should try to avoid visual obstructions.

4 Visual learners get more from a lesson if the teacher helps each of them individually.

5 Auditory learners will find it difficult to understand a text unless they listen to it being played

very loudly.

6 Tactile learners can find it hard to focus on the task.

7 If you want to benefit from your learning style, you need to make use of different styles.

8 Painting exhibitions, texts with pictures, film presentations are useful to visual learners.

9 Auditory learners should use a tape recorder during lectures.

10 Tactile type of learners should take frequent breaks.

II. Listen again and match each piece of advice (1–10) with one learning style. There are some extra pieces of advice. Tick (✓) on your answers sheet.

Auditory Tactile Visual Extra piece of advice
1 Tell a lot of stories
2 Buy an exercise bike
3 Go for colour
4 Think in terms of contrast
5 Get some chewing gum
6 Take time out to relax
7 Get some maps and charts
8 Avoid obstructions
9 Talk things through
10 Work at a standing position

Tape script 11

Lecturer: Good morning, everyone. Today I will talk to you about different learning styles and how to adopt them. So, what are learning styles? Well, they are simply different approaches to or ways of learning. There are three major learning styles. We can differentiate between visual, aural or auditory and tactile learners: visual learners learn through seeing; aural or auditory learners learn through listening, and tactile learners learn through moving, doing and touching. Now let me describe the qualities of each of these types.

As I just mentioned, visual learners are those who learn through seeing. These learners need to see the teacher’s body language and facial expressions to fully understand the content of a lesson. They tend to prefer sitting at the front of the classroom to avoid visual obstructions (e.g. people’s heads). They may think in pictures and learn bestfrom visual displays, including diagrams, illustrated text books, overhead transparencies, videos, charts and hand-outs.During a lecture or classroom discussion, visual learners often prefer to take detailed notes to absorb the information.

Auditory learners learn through listening. They learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say. Auditory learners interpret the underlying meanings of speech through listening to the tone of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances. Written information may have little meaning until it is heard. These learners often benefit from reading text aloud and using a tape recorder.

Finally, there are tactile learners. They learn through touching, moving and doing. Tactile persons learn best through actively exploring the physical world around them. They may find it hard to sit still for long periods and may become distracted by their need for activity and exploration.

You may wonder then how you can make your learning style work for you. It’s not difficult. To help you cope with your learning, it is important to identify your learning style. Once you have figured out the way you learn, you will need to use specific strategies to fit into your way of learning. Let me briefly talk about some more practical suggestions pertaining to each learning style.

For example, if you are a visual learner, you could use a highlighter when reading a text book. The bright colour would appeal to your artistic sense and help you concentrate on the reading. You could also use visual materials such as pictures, charts, maps, graphs, etc., use multi-media (e.g. computers, videos and filmstrips) or read illustrated books. In the classroom, it is a good idea to have a clear view of your teachers when they are speaking so you can see their body language and facial expression and take notes or ask your teacher to provide hand-outs. While studying, I advise you to illustrate your ideas as a picture before writing them down, visualise information as a picture to aid memorisation and finally study in a quiet place away from noise.

Auditory learners should participate in class discussions/debates, make speeches and presentations, use a tape recorder during lectures instead of taking notes and read text out aloud.

To help memorise things they could create musical jingles. A good idea would be to discuss their ideas and use analogies and storytelling to demonstrate their point.

If you are a tactile type of learner, you should move around to learn new things (e.g. read while on an exercise bike) and work at a standing position. While studying, you should take frequent breaks, but if you wish you could listen to music or chew gum. It would be a good thing to dress up your work space with posters.

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